QUARTZ (var. ROCK CRYSTAL)
HISTORY, NAME, LOCALITIES: Rock crystal, which is common and occurs worldwide, has been collected since prehistory. Notable collecting localities are found in India, Brazil, Germany, Peru, Bolivia, Namibia, Russia, and the United States (Arkansas, Colorado, Maine, Connecticut, Virginia).
MINERALOGY, PROPERTIES, OCCURRENCE: Rock crystal is the transparent, colorless variety of macrocrystalline quartz [silicon dioxide, SiO2). The word “quartz” is believed to have originated with the Slavic kwardy, meaning “hard,” in allusion to its substantial hardness. It crystallizes in the hexagonal system and occurs mainly in hydrothermal veins, granite pegmatites, and as geode linings as short-to-long, horizontally striated, hexagonal, prismatic crystals with pyramidal terminations and distinctive, water-clear transparency. It has a Mohs hardness of 7.0, a conchoidal fracture, vitreous luster, and specific gravity of 2.65.
METAPHYSICAL PROPERTIES, LORE, USES: Rock crystal has since antiquity been one of the most widely collected of all minerals. It has served as a gemstone and ornamental stone in many cultures. Until quartz was synthesized in the 1960s, rock crystal was vital to electronic frequency controls, filters, and timing devices. Modern metaphysical practitioners call rock crystal the “universal crystal” because of its numerous abilities to sharpen insight, enhance spiritual development, improve concentration, refine focus, and energize the mind.